Consumers of Christmas

It’s the week after Halloween and it feels like Christmas day. The mall is covered in lights and garlands, the stores are playing carols, and the TV is showing commercials for the perfect Christmas gift. The only place Christmas hasn’t yet hit is inside the home. The premature arrival of Christmas in the United States in areas of consumerism exemplifies how money has overshadowed the importance of tradition in our society today. This phenomenon may be usefully considered through different theories of cultural anthropology.

As discussed in class, Marxist anthropology is the study of the impact of material factors on social change within a society. If a Marxist anthropologist were to analyze the growing consumerism of Christmas in the United States, he or she might notice the increased importance of shopping and gift giving that surrounds the holiday. He or she may also notice the possible decrease of actual time spent with friends and family and the practice of traditions that originally played a major role in the holiday. One may relate the large division of classes in the United States to consumerism, in particular to that of Christmas. Some people spend thousands of dollars on presents urging large companies to raise their prices making it harder for the lower class to even buy anything at all. Through a Marxist perspective one may conclude that the change in Christmas shopping habits may impact the general division of classes and the decrease of the middle class in the United States today.

If the consumerism of Christmas in the United States were viewed through practice theory, one would compare what people do in order to celebrate Christmas versus what they say they do or what society says they should do. Many people may try to portray their practices of more intimate family traditions such as decorating the tree or baking cookies through forms of discourse such as a Christmas cards. On the contrary, society tells people to go spend all their money on as many gifts that they can possibly buy, mostly through media. The interesting part of this study would be to see who follows what they say they do versus what society tries to convince them to do in order for larger companies to continue to grow. This could be analyzed through calculating the amount of time and money people spend in large shopping malls versus the time they spend in more traditional places like the church or living room of their homes and how that amount of time has changed over the years.

There are several theories one can use to analyze the growing consumerism of Christmas in the United States. Through these theories we can better understand the meaning of Christmas and how money has impacted it, especially in the last sixty years. We can also relate this change in values to the rest of the world and how consumerism in general has become a trend in the economy of many areas of the world.

—Addison P.

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40 Responses to Consumers of Christmas

  1. Stephanie Grossart says:

    I was raised Catholic and attended Catholic school after church on sundays. Mind you that I am atheist but Christmas meant a lot more to me than just presents. I agree that society has put a large amount of pressure on how lavish gifts are. Society seems to be catching on that the trend now is to be more thrifty and homey. Companies are capitalizing on “old School” gifts and do it yourself kits. Companies will always be smarter than the consumer. Practice theory fits our Christmas today perfectly. Christmas should be about spending time with family and the ones you love. Instead society makes you believe that if you do not buy the perfect gift for each member of your family and friends, christmas will be ruined.

    • coltsedbrook says:

      I would have to agree with you Stephanie about how Christmas means more than just presents. I think when we are young we a subjected to a view of Christmas that brings presents based on if we are good children or not. My parents would always say to me, “Colt, remember Santa is watching you, if you behave badly this week, he will not bring you what you have asked for.” It worked! I would always be cautious of acting a particular way around others, and treating my parents with respect. I agree that society has ultimately put a higher value on lavish gifts. I would like to add also that Im sure my parents felt a great deal of pressure trying to get the gifts that my sister and I asked for. We were not angels by any means but we were well behaved and did what our parents asked of us. You are right in the sense that companies do jack up the prices, but in the sense we have now received another holiday in Black Friday. As a believer in Christ, I have now come to place special importance on the celebration of Jesus. It is especially important now to my parents because their children no longer believe in good ole Saint Nick.

      I agree practice theory can be used to analyze our celebration of Christmas. The celebration of family, the celebration of those that we do love. I think it is a crock of shit when people believe that if you do not get the most “perfect gift” that Christmas is ruined. Those people that believe that are in fantasy world that apparently evolves around them. I will use what my father had always brought me up by saying, “It is always better to give than to receive.” I think that he has hit it on the mark. It is the act of being able to give to those who are less fortunate than others.

      Great Job Addison!

  2. Annika Sandberg says:

    Karl Marx has a very interesting theory on commodity fetishism, meaning people have inappropriate feelings towards commodities, giving them a life and meaning past their use value. In a society almost centered on consumption, it makes sense there is such an emphasis on purchasing these commodities and allowing them to dictate how our holidays are spent, especially Christmas. I think it’s a shame this time of year has become more about spending and focusing on consumption, while forgetting about taking care of one another and spending time as a family.

  3. Maiji Castro says:

    While I agree that spending money has almost overshadowed the importance of tradition in our society today. I think it is also part of the reason that the christmas tradition remains in our global world and increasingly non religious society. It is the one time of year the majority of people in the United States have to think about their family and friends. Spending money to buy family members and friends, who may live all over the world, gifts, however large or small, is a gentle reminder that there is someone out there who is still thinking about them and who cares about them. Even if that small gift is just a card with a picture in it, it is the thought that counts. Gift giving is also one of the reasons that families gather together on christmas, making the day extra special. While consumerism may be all about the power of corporations and increased class division it is also what keeps some traditions alive.

    • Allison Kessler says:

      While I agree with your point that a gift can be sentimental or a way to show that someone is on another’s mind, this idea in itself plays to practice theory. It is ideal to say that gift giving is a way to appreciate another while in many people’s live, no matter how bad it sounds, it is also in hope that there will be a reciprocal gift. A lot of the holiday season is spent worrying about ‘should I get him a gift’ or ‘if she gets me something what will I do if I haven’t gotten her anything’. I agree that the purpose of gifts has the best intentions to make someones day or remind them who loves them in an overall perspective, there is an underlying thought practice of reciprocity and consumerism at its finest.

    • Adriana Petersen says:

      While I agree that Christmas has largely changed over the years into a holiday surrounded by consumerism, I think Maiji brings up an interesting point that could be easily analyzed through interpretive theory. Gift giving is a special reminder that there is someone who really cares about you. It shows that there is someone that is thinking of you during special time of year. Gifts, in a broad sense, can represent the love that the holidays seem to bring out in people. On the other hand, they can also bring about pressure and stress which can unfortunately cause much tension between family and friends. Gift giving does have several positive aspects to it, but I think that it is important to treat that part of Christmas with moderation and not blow it out of proportion, which parts of society seem to have done.

  4. Joe Wirth says:

    I think Addison’s essay gives a really good stance from a Marxist Anthropologist’s perspective in terms of how Christmas has evolved in American culture, but I don’t think it was necessarily the traditions of the Christian holiday that has led to the overhaul of consumerism during the holidays. Of course gift giving during Christmas time leads to people going out and purchasing gifts for their loved ones, but Christmas is and always will be traditionally a celebration of the birth of Jesus, it’s the gift giving that have been culturally constructed to coincide with the holiday. And obviously that’s where retailers and many business people try to make money, and it makes perfect sense from an economic perspective. With more shoppers comes more opportunity for income for these business people and Christmas is certainly the most wonderful time of the year for them, and they’ll do a lot of advertising to have consumers on the same page.

    Addison writes: “On the contrary, society tells people to go spend all their money on as many gifts that they can possibly buy, mostly through media.” This statement is kind of convoluted to me personally because I do think business people advertise their products on TV, radio, the Internet and other mediums to get people to spend their money every season of the year, and I don’t think business people really constitute society but I understand in terms of practice theory that Addison is hypothetically speaking.

    But in terms of the big question from this essay, I think everyone gives in a little bit to what society tells them they ought to do during Christmas, but it’s not because society is telling them to do so. I’ve never bought a Christmas gift for any members of my family or my friends because society told me so, I wanted to get gifts for these people, but on the other hand there are those certain people in life including parents, grandparetns, siblings, girlfriend, etc., that I feel obligated to buy something for, because it’s the nature of the holiday. But it’s the thought that counts, right?

  5. Hannah Hilden-Reid says:

    I think this is a very important example in US culture of a major transition of values within society. I think it would also be interesting to investigate how this sense of materialism came about. Reflecting back on the history of the United States shows that through the industrial revolution consumerism was created. With less families in rural areas, moving to the city, and working in factory jobs, there was more accessibility to new products. People in the US at the time with more free time, more economic freedom, and better accessibility to material goods transitioned the focus around the holidays away from spending time with the family to consumerism instead.

  6. I was raised Baptist and attended a Christian school until middle school. Personally i believe that I society changed the idea behind giving gifts and original reasoning behind it. Not only that but the more expensive the “better person, friend, or family member you are.”Practice theory fits the American Christmas today perfectly. Christmas was originally surrounded by the ideals of spending time with family and the ones you love. Now this has changed to the best gifts, and best picture perfect christmas leaving the true meaning of the holiday out.

  7. Kyle Santi says:

    I am intrigued regarding the Marxist explanation for the increasing consumerism of Christmas. I suppose the holidays can leave lower-income people with more negative feelings because of their lower buying power, and society works to leave them out of everything through various means. I am also intrigued by how this consumerism is lowering the middle class by raising prices for stuff so they cannot buy as much and they become left out. I also think practice theory applied here makes sense. We say we spend time with family, but we buy them stuff instead. Maybe that’s seen as acceptable because our consumerist culture has taught us that buying stuff for family is an acceptable alternative to actually spending time with them. After all, many of us have family we would rather not associate with, so maybe gift buying is an easy excuse for getting out of actually visiting them. Good analysis!

  8. Drake Williams says:

    I love the topic you chose. I spent a lot of time at christian schools and I find it funny that people justify the celebration of Christmas as the birth of christ when it is widely know that he was born in a different season (I mean no offense to any Christians who read this). Then there is the story of St. Nicholas, Santa Claus, who we were taught as children gave gifts to children in need, but we choose to spend money on things that no one needs, mostly for people who do not need or want for much. As you mentioned the growth of consumerism is america has turned this holiday into one of stress instead of reflection. I find it funny that we so quickly transition from one holiday, thanksgiving – a day of thanks, to christmas – fighting for the best deal on black friday for a gift for someone who does not need anything. Perhaps we can say that the Christmas we get so excited for every year has changed with the globalization of the non-marxist ideal of capitalism.

    • Alyssa Janssen says:

      While I agree that Christmas is largely based on consumerism, I would disagree with Drake and Addison by arguing that Christmas still holds a lot of meaning aside from the gifts. Christmas is very much a time of overindulgence, I am not arguing with that, but I know for my family at least Christmas is less about getting new things and more about bringing joy to your family and friends. I would also challenge Addison’s point that the lower class feels hostility toward Christmas because they cannot afford the things they want. This may be the case for some, but I know many lower income families who get the same joy by being with family, buying what they can, having a Christmas dinner, etc. I would however agree that Christmas has become a worldwide holiday that has moved away from it’s traditional meaning. While it is still largely a Christian holiday, it has been adopted by many people who do not practice the religion and I believe it’s emphasis has shifted from Christ to family. While the meaning of Christmas has changed much over the years, I wouldn’t go so far as to say that it has been completely lost to consumerism.
      I really enjoyed Addison’s application of practice theory, for there is definitely a rift between what people say about Christmas and what they actually do to practice the holiday. I think it would be really interesting to look at this in devout Christians and Athiests or people of other religions (all of which have very different beliefs regarding Christianity but may practice Christmas in the same way). Overall I think this was a good essay that brought up the elephant in the manger, the fact that Christmas has become a worldwide holiday with an emphasis on consumerism and the disparity between people’s practiced religion and what they practice on Christmas.

      • katie van amson says:

        I really like what Alyssa said about how the focus seems to have shifted from Christ to family. Yes christmas is a huge time of consumerism in that people buy a lot of things, many of which they don’t need but I really don’t think that thats what it’s all about. Christmas is about being with the people who you love and making them happy. and everyone making everyone happy. I know how cheesy and dumb that sounds but honestly I think it’s true. For the past few years I’ve had a job, and therefor had money of my own so the presents that I get people I’m able to get with my own money and this has honestly made me love christmas so much more. I think that giving someone a present that you worked to be able to afford even if its cheaper is so much more meaningful, and I’ve found that when I’m christmas shopping on a lower budget I get much more meaningful gifts versus just nice things that everyone wants. I disagree with the notion that christmas is worse for people without money because its the meaning behind christmas presents that is so important and even just the time that you spend with someone exchanging gifts and dining together brings you so much closer. now that i’ve been away at college for awhile I find that I appreciate my family a lot more, and am more excited than ever for christmas this year.

  9. Scott MacDonald says:

    Your use of practice theory here is very well done. The perception of what we value during the holidays seems to vary with growing consumerism. The ideal gathering of family during Christmas has slowly turned into more of a care for only the material items. As a society, we value material items maybe more so then the time spent with loved ones. I like your Idea of analyzing this by observing the time differentials between time spent in malls and with intimate family. I would be really interested to seeing that too!

  10. Hunter Emmons says:

    Christmas has slowly been departing from a religious holiday and has been more focused on friends and family, despite the money factor. I do, however, think that the practice of Christmas has certainly changed over the years. When watching television commercials, it becomes clear how much consumerism has taken over the concept of focusing on family and friends and sometimes I feel that Christmas is much more about gift-giving. It has been socially acceptable now to make it primarily focused on these gifts. The practice theory was really well written and I know that we were not supposed to use it, but symbolic anthropology would be an interesting concept to look further into. I do love Christmas, but when I think of how close it comes up I begin stressing about all of the gifts that I will have to buy and what I should buy for who. The holiday does represent friends and family, but it has really become a consumerism holiday and only seems to be furthering into the direction.

  11. Alyssa Ferguson says:

    I think that practice theory can be hard to use at in this, though you did a wonderful job. I think that because America has become a melting pot of so many people and cultures, there isn’t one way of celebrating the holidays with family. We have many religious practices that we see, and some people use the holidays to get the “black friday” deals. At least for me, the holidays are not about consumerism but the giving aspect is very important to my family. Other people have different traditions but I think we can attribute that to the amount of different cultures that we have in America. I think something that could have been included is the idea of working on the holidays and how the media praises the stores that are open on holidays to make other peoples traditions more important. This can be tied in to the idea of the separation of the classes. For people in the lower class working on the holidays and getting paid time and a half could help them stay up to standard on the consumerism of the holiday season, but that means less time with their family. But the author brought up a good point that the holiday season has become very different as we have become a more industrialized nation.

  12. Claire Cohen says:

    I completely agree with this essay. Today in the United States, Christmas has been transformed from a holiday with once religious meaning into one that is primarily focused on consumerism. Drake brings up an excellent point about the irony of the materialistic-driven Black Friday falling on the day after we are supposed to reflect on our lives and give thanks for what we have. I think that this could be looked at with practice theory. Even though people are supposed to feel gratitude for what they have been blessed with, they leave the house a couple of hours later to engage in aggressive shopping competition. When I read this essay, I immediately thought of a paper that I wrote on commodity fetishism (a theory by Karl Marx that Annika has explained above) and Christmas. In a society that is driven by material-success such as the United States, it is not a surprise that once spiritual holidays are taken advantage of by someone hoping to turn a profit. It’s unfortunate that special days that were once focused on being with friends and family and feeling thankful are now about purchasing and receiving the best gifts.

  13. Rachael Sheehy says:

    Perhaps this trend can be explained, though certainly not justified, by the notion that if the head of a family is not providing for their family with material means, then they are not providing for them at all. The manifestation of love as gifts is of course not a new notion, but the sense of obligation has escalated to a point where the countless hours in the mall are maybe not a voluntary act but a demonstration of the desire to exhibit to society that one fulfills the societal norm of a good parent.

  14. Hayley Dardick says:

    Your article got me thinking about how I would apply practice theory to my own life.

    My dad is Jewish so my family celebrates both Hanukkah and Christmas during this time of year. I consider myself to be half-Jewish and half-Christian, but I really do nothing religious for either. In theory I can claim to celebrate these holidays because of my views, but this is not what my everyday, actual behavior suggests. I do not attend synagogue or church and when we light the Menorah on Hanukkah I don’t even know the prayers that are supposed to be said.

    This idea could also be applied to “C and E Christians” or Christians who only go to Church on Christmas and Easter. As both are very sacred religious holidays they should be treated with reverence, but when people don’t practice this religion regularly, it becomes clear these holidays are tainted by other ideas, like she discussed here: consumerism.

  15. McKenzie A says:

    I really liked the use of practice theory in the paper. The world today is more focused on material items (like mentioned in the Marxists paragraph) than on people. Christmas is supposed to be a time spent with family and friends, full of laughter and celebration for making it through another year and just being together, but is this what it actually is? A big part of Christmas is also the giving and receiving of presents. I feel as if this part of the holiday is actually becoming more important and time consuming than spending it with the people you should be spending your time with. Society through media influences people to spend more money on shopping than what Christmas actually means.

  16. Allison Dudley says:

    I’m half Jewish and half Christian. While I was raised Jewish, both religions were integrated into my life. For the holidays, I celebrate both Christmas and Chanukah. Over Christmas, all my family does is give each other gifts of sentimental and monetary value. Over Chanukah, we celebrate a miracle that occurred long ago by lighting candles and saying prayers. In my family, my religious holiday is one full of prayers, thanks, and love. My non-religious holiday fits in the mold of capitalism and economic theory through balanced reciprocity. I think that America has lost the meaning of Christmas in our capitalist economy. Christmas is a religious holiday for some and a holiday of gifts for others. What is the meaning behind this? What would an interpretive anthropologist say about the current trends of christmas? I love the practice theory angle in this essay as it amplifies the social construction of religion and how today people are using religious holidays for personal gain and give. What caused this change in thought? (Historic Turn perhaps?)

  17. Sam Calahan says:

    I think the Historic Turn is particularly relevant to the state of Christmas in America today. What would a newcomer to the US, one unfamiliar with the Christmas tradition, think about it? Likely they would imagine it to be some sort of celebration of capitalism, when everyone is encouraged to go out and buy stuff that no one needs just because they can. Who would Santa be to them? (And who is he to many of us who DO follow the tradition?). A fat, happy capitalist? A Karl Marx who finally gave up on communism and let his gut grow as prominent as his beard? Truly, Christmas has come a long way since its beginning, and is for many people almost unrecognizable from its original form.

  18. Brianna Larkin says:

    I agree that there is less time spent with my family during Christmas than what I would like. As for the presents its so difficult to get everyone a present and especially when it overflows onto the friends side, where its always, “well if they get me a present then I’m going to have to get them a present”. I do agree that the gifts are becoming more of do it yourself crafts than buying the most expensive thing but again, I would rather have it more focused on family than all the stress of shopping during the holidays.

  19. Alana McDowell says:

    I’ve seen a few Walmart ads for christmas gifts lately, and I think they relate PERFECTLY to this excerpt: “One may relate the large division of classes in the United States to consumerism… Some people spend thousands of dollars on presents urging large companies to raise their prices making it harder for the lower class to even buy anything at all.”
    As the prices of high-quality and well-made products go up, the working and lower classes are forced to turn to cheap manufacturers like Walmart to be able meet the societal expectation of “getting a gift for *everyone.*” Because these struggling classes have a harder time affording so many gifts, especially in today’s economy, places like Walmart are the perfect place for them to turn. Unfortunately, the growth of Walmart is ITSELF only deepening the class divide, because company executives hoard profits (and use them to influence policy in their favor) while the workers are hardly paid anything. In addition, manufacturing is outsourced to China, where the de facto indebted servitude labor relations created by EXTREMELY low wages and poor living conditions essentially resembles slavery. This is the classic example of business pitting itself against its consumers in a way that keeps consumers poor and unable to afford any better. Very sad 😦

    • Alana McDowell says:

      This really relates to Marxist anthropology in that manufacturing/production/labor is creating a DIRECT effect on our society. As companies like Walmart outsource production for super cheap, they can sell their products cheaply as well. This in turn attracts middle and lower consumers, whose purchases only support the low wages Walmart offers its struggling employees.

  20. John Cooper says:

    I feel as if a Marxist anthropologist could not even talk about Christmas without pointing out that it is the creation of the capitalist system. No not the Religious aspects but the hole retail presents under the tree part. The fact that the buying of presents has increased along with the rise of capitalism would not be over looked by a marxist, especially after the historic turn.

  21. Miles Agan says:

    Great essay, I think Christmas and practice theory go hand in hand. Today, Christmas is all about consumerism, regardless of what people say it is really about. I think this is partly due to media as well as the growing information technology industry. People say and want Christmas to be about friends and family, but it has now become somewhat of a competition. People race and trample each other every year on black Friday to get cheap gifts for one another. All the ads you see this time of year try to guilt trip people in someway. “Want to be the worlds best dad? Buy your kids the newest ipad for the holidays!”

  22. Jake Bradshaw says:

    As a Christmas Christian, an atheist who celebrates the birth of Christ once a year, I really love this article. The Marxist analysis is warming as it is so true and sickening that Christmas is a time that fuels US consumerism and is its season pushed back farther each year in order to maximize profits. I wonder though, if this could not be an example of post-structuralism where the selfless nature of Christ, and this message he spread (which is purportedly upheld by millions of Christians in America), is not being actively challenged, and seemingly usurped, by the greed fueled characteristic of Capitalism with its worship of Mammon in place of Christ. I would almost argue that Christmas,once a spiritual time with familial rejoices, is a representation of the changing cultural norm were the time of worship and family was once the hegemony with consumerism the crack within the system, and now these roles are reversed.

  23. shelly kim says:

    i really think this is interesting topic because i realize nowadays parents have to worry more about their budget on christmas due to all the new ‘gifts’ kids want for christmas. i remember when i was young, all i wanted was a barbie or some kinds of toys that doesn’t go over $40 bucks but kids now wants ipods, iphones, ipads, or something technological and expensive!
    great choice to choose marxist theory and practice theory to explain this new consumerism.
    awesome job with marxist but if you included more about how big companies apple and samsung are affecting little kids nowadays and how capitalism is playing out.
    practice theory, if you got into more detail about what people did at home and church like eating and gift-giving back in the days would make it better

  24. Michaela Quinlan says:

    I’m really glad someone decided to write about Consumerism is the United States regarding the Christmas season because that is the exact reason why I hate Christmas. Though my family and friends call me “The Grinch”, throughout my life I have always felt the true meaning behind what the Christian holiday represents becomes overshadowed by endless amounts of gifts, stocking stuffers, decorations, and exchanges between family members I have only met on Christmas day. The Marxist theory hits right home due to the acknowledgment of class separation and the consumption of various Christmas gifts. I do have some critiques for the discussion: though the consumerism behind the Christmas holiday reflects the increasing separation between classes, I don’t necessarily believe Christmas to be a significant cause. Yes the holiday season encourages the increase in quota of a product, but I don’t think companies necessarily increase prices in order to pertain to a higher class. If anything, retailers wish to sell to a wider market in order to increase the consumerism of their product. Companies such as K-Mart appeal to lower classes with “lay-away” programs which build credit systems and long-term payment plans for holiday gift shopping. Secondly, I loved the analysis through Practice Theory and completely agree with your argument. I would find it interesting though to look at people who resist Christmas Consumerism, such as families who give their gifts to charity, or make home-made presents for their loved ones. Therefore it’s a comparison between what society says (ie. Consume, consume, consume) versus the rejection of this notion.

  25. In this essay, I like how you discuss the idea of consumerism replacing tradition. The entire idea of Christmas is such a huge part of society in the contemporary United States, as well as what we do to celebrate it. Gifts under the christmas tree is one of the most important traditions of the holiday as well as getting the perfect gift for someone. However, I think that a lot of time is gone in to looking for gifts for every family member, and getting them exactly what they want, then other traditions like baking cookies, going caroling, or spending time with friends and family. So much is put in to preparing for Christmas eve and day, that sometimes its easy for us to forget to celebrate the entire season for what it really means and doing activities that is not necessarily consuming products.

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